Most visited places in the world | Wikipedia audio article

Most visited places in the world | Wikipedia audio article


Tourism is travel for pleasure or business;
also the theory and practice of touring, the business of attracting, accommodating, and
entertaining tourists, and the business of operating tours. Tourism may be international, or within the
traveller’s country. The World Tourism Organization defines tourism
more generally, in terms which go “beyond the common perception of tourism as being
limited to holiday activity only”, as people “traveling to and staying in places outside
their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure and not less
than 24 hours, business and other purposes”.Tourism can be domestic or international, and international
tourism has both incoming and outgoing implications on a country’s balance of payments. Tourism suffered as a result of a strong economic
slowdown of the late-2000s recession, between the second half of 2008 and the end of 2009,
and the outbreak of the H1N1 influenza virus, but slowly recovered. International tourism receipts (the travel
item in the balance of payments) grew to US$1.03 trillion (€740 billion) in 2005, corresponding
to an increase in real terms of 3.8% from 2010. International tourist arrivals surpassed the
milestone of 1 billion tourists globally for the first time in 2012, emerging markets such
as China, Russia, and Brazil had significantly increased their spending over the previous
decade. The ITB Berlin is the world’s leading tourism
trade fair. Global tourism accounts for ca. 8% of global
greenhouse gas emissions.==Etymology==The word tourist was used in 1772 and tourism
in 1811. It is formed from the word tour, which is
derived from Old English turian, from Old French torner, from Latin tornare; ‘to turn
on a lathe,’ which is itself from Ancient Greek tornos (τόρνος); ‘lathe’.==Significance of tourism==Tourism has become an important source of
income for many regions and even entire countries. The Manila Declaration on World Tourism of
1980 recognized its importance as “an activity essential to the life of nations because of
its direct effects on the social, cultural, educational, and economic sectors of national
societies, and on their international relations.”Tourism brings large amounts of income into a local
economy in the form of payment for goods and services needed by tourists, accounting as
of 2011 for 30% of the world’s trade in services, and for 6% of overall exports of goods and
services. It also generates opportunities for employment
in the service sector of the economy associated with tourism.The hospitality industries which
benefit from tourism include transportation services (such as airlines, cruise ships,
trains and taxicabs); hospitality services (such as accommodations, including hotels
and resorts); and entertainment venues (such as amusement parks, restaurants, casinos,
shopping malls, music venues, and theaters). This is in addition to goods bought by tourists,
including souvenirs. On the flip-side, tourism can degrade people
and sour relationships between host and guest.==Definitions==
In 1936, the League of Nations defined a foreign tourist as “someone traveling abroad for at
least twenty-four hours”. Its successor, the United Nations, amended
this definition in 1945, by including a maximum stay of six months.In 1941, Hunziker and Kraft
defined tourism as “the sum of the phenomena and relationships arising from the travel
and stay of non-residents, insofar as they do not lead to permanent residence and are
not connected with any earning activity.” In 1976, the Tourism Society of England’s
definition was: “Tourism is the temporary, short-term movement of people to destinations
outside the places where they normally live and work and their activities during the stay
at each destination. It includes movements for all purposes.” In 1981, the International Association of
Scientific Experts in Tourism defined tourism in terms of particular activities chosen and
undertaken outside the home.In 1994, the United Nations identified three forms of tourism
in its Recommendations on Tourism Statistics: Domestic tourism, involving residents of the
given country traveling only within this country Inbound tourism, involving non-residents traveling
in the given country Outbound tourism, involving residents traveling
in another countryThe terms tourism and travel are sometimes used interchangeably. In this context, travel has a similar definition
to tourism, but implies a more purposeful journey. The terms tourism and tourist are sometimes
used pejoratively, to imply a shallow interest in the cultures or locations visited. By contrast, traveler is often used as a sign
of distinction. The sociology of tourism has studied the cultural
values underpinning these distinctions and their implications for class relations.==World tourism statistics and rankings=====Total volume of cross-border tourist travel
===International tourist arrivals reached 1.035
billion in 2012, up from over 996 million in 2011, and 952 million in 2010. In 2011 and 2012, international travel demand
continued to recover from the losses resulting from the late-2000s recession, where tourism
suffered a strong slowdown from the second half of 2008 through the end of 2009. After a 5% increase in the first half of 2008,
growth in international tourist arrivals moved into negative territory in the second half
of 2008, and ended up only 2% for the year, compared to a 7% increase in 2007. The negative trend intensified during 2009,
exacerbated in some countries due to the outbreak of the H1N1 influenza virus, resulting in
a worldwide decline of 4.2% in 2009 to 880 million international tourists arrivals, and
a 5.7% decline in international tourism receipts.===World’s top tourism destinations===The World Tourism Organization reports the
following ten destinations as the most visited in terms of the number of international travelers
in 2017.===International tourism receipts===
International tourism receipts grew to US$1.26 Trillion in 2015, corresponding to an increase
in real terms of 4.4% from 2014. The World Tourism Organization reports the
following entities as the top ten tourism earners for the year 2015:===International tourism expenditure===
The World Tourism Organization reports the following countries as the ten biggest spenders
on international tourism for the year 2015.===Euromonitor International Top City Destinations
Ranking===Euromonitor International rated these the
world’s cities most visited by international tourists in 2017:===World Travel and Tourism Council=====
History=====
Antiquity===Travel outside a person’s local area for leisure
was largely confined to wealthy classes, who at times traveled to distant parts of the
world, to see great buildings and works of art, learn new languages, experience new cultures,
and to taste different cuisines. As early as Shulgi, however, kings praised
themselves for protecting roads and building way stations for travelers. Travelling for pleasure can be seen in Egypt
as early on as 1500 BC. During the Roman Republic, spas and coastal
resorts such as Baiae were popular among the rich. Pausanias wrote his Description of Greece
in the second century AD. In ancient China, nobles sometimes made a
point of visiting Mount Tai and, on occasion, all five Sacred Mountains.===Middle Ages===
By the Middle Ages, Christianity and Buddhism had traditions of pilgrimage. Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales and Wu Cheng’en’s
Journey to the West remain classics of English and Chinese literature. The 10th- to 13th-century Song dynasty also
saw secular travel writers such as Su Shi (11th century) and Fan Chengda (12th century)
become popular in China. Under the Ming, Xu Xiake continued the practice. In medieval Italy, Francesco Petrarch also
wrote an allegorical account of his 1336 ascent of Mount Ventoux that praised the act of traveling
and criticized frigida incuriositas (“cold lack of curiosity”). The Burgundian poet Michault Taillevent later
composed his own horrified recollections of a 1430 trip through the Jura Mountains.===Grand Tour===Modern tourism can be traced to what was known
as the Grand Tour, which was a traditional trip around Europe (especially Germany and
Italy), undertaken by mainly upper-class European young men of means, mainly from Western and
Northern European countries. In 1624, young Prince of Poland, Ladislaus
Sigismund Vasa, the eldest son and heir of Sigismund III, embarked for a journey across
Europe, as was in custom among Polish nobility. He travelled through territories of today’s
Germany, Belgium, Netherlands, where he admired the Siege of Breda by Spanish forces, France,
Switzerland to Italy, Austria, and the Czech Republic. It was an educational journey and one of the
outcomes was introduction of Italian opera in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.The
custom flourished from about 1660 until the advent of large-scale rail transit in the
1840s, and generally followed a standard itinerary. It was an educational opportunity and rite
of passage. Though primarily associated with the British
nobility and wealthy landed gentry, similar trips were made by wealthy young men of Protestant
Northern European nations on the Continent, and from the second half of the 18th century
some South American, US, and other overseas youth joined in. The tradition was extended to include more
of the middle class after rail and steamship travel made the journey easier, and Thomas
Cook made the “Cook’s Tour” a byword. The Grand Tour became a real status symbol
for upper class students in the 18th and 19th centuries. In this period, Johann Joachim Winckelmann’s
theories about the supremacy of classic culture became very popular and appreciated in the
European academic world. Artists, writers and travellers (such as Goethe)
affirmed the supremacy of classic art of which Italy, France and Greece provide excellent
examples. For these reasons, the Grand Tour’s main destinations
were to those centres, where upper-class students could find rare examples of classic art and
history. The New York Times recently described the
Grand Tour in this way: Three hundred years ago, wealthy young Englishmen
began taking a post-Oxbridge trek through France and Italy in search of art, culture
and the roots of Western civilization. With nearly unlimited funds, aristocratic
connections and months (or years) to roam, they commissioned paintings, perfected their
language skills and mingled with the upper crust of the Continent. The primary value of the Grand Tour, it was
believed, laid in the exposure both to the cultural legacy of classical antiquity and
the Renaissance, and to the aristocratic and fashionably polite society of the European
continent.===Emergence of leisure travel===Leisure travel was associated with the Industrial
Revolution in the United Kingdom – the first European country to promote leisure time to
the increasing industrial population. Initially, this applied to the owners of the
machinery of production, the economic oligarchy, factory owners and traders. These comprised the new middle class. Cox & Kings was the first official travel
company to be formed in 1758.The British origin of this new industry is reflected in many
place names. In Nice, France, one of the first and best-established
holiday resorts on the French Riviera, the long esplanade along the seafront is known
to this day as the Promenade des Anglais; in many other historic resorts in continental
Europe, old, well-established palace hotels have names like the Hotel Bristol, Hotel Carlton,
or Hotel Majestic – reflecting the dominance of English customers. A pioneer of the travel agency business, Thomas
Cook’s idea to offer excursions came to him while waiting for the stagecoach on the London
Road at Kibworth. With the opening of the extended Midland Counties
Railway, he arranged to take a group of 540 temperance campaigners from Leicester Campbell
Street station to a rally in Loughborough, eleven miles (18 km) away. On 5 July 1841, Thomas Cook arranged for the
rail company to charge one shilling per person; this included rail tickets and food for the
journey. Cook was paid a share of the fares charged
to the passengers, as the railway tickets, being legal contracts between company and
passenger, could not have been issued at his own price. This was the first privately chartered excursion
train to be advertised to the general public; Cook himself acknowledged that there had been
previous, unadvertised, private excursion trains. During the following three summers he planned
and conducted outings for temperance societies and Sunday school children. In 1844 the Midland Counties Railway Company
agreed to make a permanent arrangement with him, provided he found the passengers. This success led him to start his own business
running rail excursions for pleasure, taking a percentage of the railway fares.In 1855,
he planned his first excursion abroad, when he took a group from Leicester to Calais to
coincide with the Paris Exhibition. The following year he started his “grand circular
tours” of Europe. During the 1860s he took parties to Switzerland,
Italy, Egypt and the United States. Cook established “inclusive independent travel”,
whereby the traveller went independently but his agency charged for travel, food and accommodation
for a fixed period over any chosen route. Such was his success that the Scottish railway
companies withdrew their support between 1862 and 1863 to try the excursion business for
themselves.==Cruise shipping==Cruising is a popular form of water tourism. Leisure cruise ships were introduced by the
Peninsular & Oriental Steam Navigation Company (P&O) in 1844, sailing from Southampton to
destinations such as Gibraltar, Malta and Athens. In 1891, German businessman Albert Ballin
sailed the ship Augusta Victoria from Hamburg into the Mediterranean Sea. June 29, 1900 saw the launching of the first
purpose-built cruise ship was Prinzessin Victoria Luise, built in Hamburg for the Hamburg America
Line.==Modern day tourism==Many leisure-oriented tourists travel to seaside
resorts on their nearest coast or further afield. Coastal areas in the tropics are popular in
both summer and winter.===Mass tourism===Academics have defined mass tourism as travel
by groups on pre-scheduled tours, usually under the organization of tourism professionals. This form of tourism developed during the
second half of the 19th century in the United Kingdom and was pioneered by Thomas Cook. Cook took advantage of Europe’s rapidly expanding
railway network and established a company that offered affordable day trip excursions
to the masses, in addition to longer holidays to Continental Europe, India, Asia and the
Western Hemisphere which attracted wealthier customers. By the 1890s over 20,000 tourists per year
used Thomas Cook & Son.The relationship between tourism companies, transportation operators
and hotels is a central feature of mass tourism. Cook was able to offer prices that were below
the publicly advertised price because his company purchased large numbers of tickets
from railroads. One contemporary form of mass tourism, package
tourism, still incorporates the partnership between these three groups. Travel developed during the early 20th century
and was facilitated by the development of the automobiles and later by airplanes. Improvements in transport allowed many people
to travel quickly to places of leisure interest, so that more people could begin to enjoy the
benefits of leisure time. In Continental Europe, early seaside resorts
included: Heiligendamm, founded in 1793 at the Baltic Sea, being the first seaside resort;
Ostend, popularised by the people of Brussels; Boulogne-sur-Mer and Deauville for the Parisians;
Taormina in Sicily. In the United States, the first seaside resorts
in the European style were at Atlantic City, New Jersey and Long Island, New York. By the mid-20th century the Mediterranean
Coast became the principal mass tourism destination. The 1960s and 1970s saw mass tourism play
a major role in the Spanish economic “miracle”.===Niche tourism===Niche tourism refers to the numerous specialty
forms of tourism that have emerged over the years, each with its own adjective. Many of these terms have come into common
use by the tourism industry and academics. Others are emerging concepts that may or may
not gain popular usage. Examples of the more common niche tourism
markets are: Other terms used for niche or specialty travel
forms include the term “destination” in the descriptions, such as destination weddings,
and terms such as location vacation.===Winter tourism===St. Moritz, Switzerland became the cradle
of the developing winter tourism in the 1860s: hotel manager Johannes Badrutt invited some
summer guests from England to return in the winter to see the snowy landscape, thereby
inaugurating a popular trend. It was, however, only in the 1970s when winter
tourism took over the lead from summer tourism in many of the Swiss ski resorts. Even in winter, up to one third of all guests
(depending on the location) consist of non-skiers.Major ski resorts are located mostly in the various
European countries (e.g. Andorra, Austria, Bulgaria, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Czech
Republic, Cyprus, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Italy, Norway, Latvia, Lithuania,
Poland, Romania, Serbia, Sweden, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Switzerland, Turkey), Canada,
the United States (e.g. Montana, Utah, Colorado, California, Wyoming, Vermont, New Hampshire,
New York) Argentina, New Zealand, Japan, South Korea, Chile, and Lebanon. Some places that already have ski opportunities
can also have glaciers in the area. Some of these places that already offer a
glacier hike to see these glaciers. One of these places is New Zealand; New Zealand
has several glaciers that are available for this experience. The Franz Josef is one of these glaciers that
tourism is available. The only way to get to the glacier is via
a helicopter. Before helicopters were invented, the way
that people were able to get up to the glacier was by hiking up to the glacier. The companies have to make sure that people
are safe when they are on the glacier. This would fall under environmental tourism
as well as winter tourism.==Recent developments==There has been an up-trend in tourism over
the last few decades, especially in Europe, where international travel for short breaks
is common. Tourists have a wide range of budgets and
tastes, and a wide variety of resorts and hotels have developed to cater for them. For example, some people prefer simple beach
vacations, while others want more specialised holidays, quieter resorts, family-oriented
holidays, or niche market-targeted destination hotels. The developments in air transport infrastructure,
such as jumbo jets, low-cost airlines, and more accessible airports have made many types
of tourism more affordable. The WHO estimated in 2009 that there are around
half a million people on board aircraft at any given time. There have also been changes in lifestyle,
for example some retirement-age people sustain year round tourism. This is facilitated by internet sales of tourist
services. Some sites have now started to offer dynamic
packaging, in which an inclusive price is quoted for a tailor-made package requested
by the customer upon impulse. There have been a few setbacks in tourism,
such as the September 11 attacks and terrorist threats to tourist destinations, such as in
Bali and several European cities. Also, on 26 December 2004, a tsunami, caused
by the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake, hit the Asian countries on the Indian Ocean, including
the Maldives. Thousands of lives were lost including many
tourists. This, together with the vast clean-up operations,
stopped or severely hampered tourism in the area for a time.Individual low-price or even
zero-price overnight stays have become more popular in the 2000s, especially with a strong
growth in the hostel market and services like CouchSurfing and airbnb being established. There has also been examples of jurisdictions
wherein a significant portion of GDP is being spent on altering the primary sources of revenue
towards tourism, as has occurred for instance in Dubai.===Sustainable tourism===”Sustainable tourism is envisaged as leading
to management of all resources in such a way that economic, social and aesthetic needs
can be fulfilled while maintaining cultural integrity, essential ecological processes,
biological diversity and life support systems.” (World Tourism Organization)Sustainable development
implies “meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future
generations to meet their own needs.” (World Commission on Environment and Development,
1987)An important part of sustainable tourism is something known as the three pillars of
sustainability which include Economic, Environmental/Ecological and Socio-cultural. For a destination to be truly sustainable
it must have an equal balance among the three pillars. Economic is in relation to money and making
and maintaining a certain amount of cash. Environmental is of course in relation to
the environment it looks into whether the local ecosystems can support the influx of
visitors and also how these visitors effect the ecosystem. Then finally Socio-cultural is about how well
the culture of this area is able to maintain its traditions with the incoming tourists. These pillars are important because they are
the true key to being sustainable when discussing tourism.Sustainable tourism can be seen as
having regard to ecological and social-cultural carrying capacities and includes involving
the community of the destination in tourism development planning (that was done e.g. in
Fruška Gora National Park in Serbia). It also involves integrating tourism to match
current economic and growth policies so as to mitigate some of the negative economic
and social impacts of ‘mass tourism’. Murphy (1985) advocates the use of an ‘ecological
approach’, to consider both ‘plants’ and ‘people’ when implementing the sustainable tourism
development process. This is in contrast to the ‘boosterism’ and
‘economic’ approaches to tourism planning, neither of which consider the detrimental
ecological or sociological impacts of tourism development to a destination. However, Butler questions the exposition of
the term ‘sustainable’ in the context of tourism, citing its ambiguity and stating that “the
emerging sustainable development philosophy of the 1990s can be viewed as an extension
of the broader realization that a preoccupation with economic growth without regard to its
social and environmental consequences is self-defeating in the long term.” Thus ‘sustainable tourism development’ is
seldom considered as an autonomous function of economic regeneration as separate from
general economic growth.===Textile tourism===
Textile tourism refers to people traveling to experience the places related to textile,
and are provided knowledge on different fabrics, process, practice of weaving and to know about
the technicalities involved the weaving and rural handicraft of handloom ,it involve traveling
to experience the historical places of textile like Jaipur, Mysore, Varanasi, Kancheepuram
& so on.===Ecotourism===Ecotourism, also known as ecological tourism,
is responsible travel to fragile, pristine, and usually protected areas that strives to
be low-impact and (often) small-scale. It helps educate the traveler; provides funds
for conservation; directly benefits the economic development and political empowerment of local
communities; and fosters respect for different cultures and for human rights.Take only memories
and leave only footprints is a very common slogan in protected areas. Tourist destinations are shifting to low carbon
emissions following the trend of visitors more focused in being environmentally responsible
adopting a sustainable behavior.===Movie tourism===
The movie tourism is a form of tourism for those who visit the film and television locations,
i.e. the places used for filming a film or a television series. In addition to organized tours (and not) to
film locations lately has widened the tendency to a type of tourism, linked to the cinema,
which relates to events, conventions and more like the case of the Dizionario del Turismo
Cinematografico.===Dizionario del Turismo Cinematografico
===The Dizionario del Turismo Cinematografico
is an artistic costume movement originally born as a journalistic column on various online
and paper publications officially in 2012 (with a genesis formed in the previous decade)
but, in the following years, it has become a real costume fashion popularized in sites,
associations, institutions, municipal administrations, political parties, movements and television
listings all over the world. It also includes Museums and Sports Groups
linked to its brand. The purpose of the work is varied: from the
redevelopment of territorial areas thanks to the artistic interest raised to be film
and fiction locations (Movie tourism) to promote events linked to the Cinema as film anniversaries,
festivals, parties to theme (Toga Party, Monster Party, Cosplay Party, Hollywood Party, Pajamas
Party, etc.), manifestations born in films or that the cinema has helped to divulge (though
already existing) as, for example, the Demolition Derby, village festivals disseminated by the
Cinema (such as those appearing in the Mondo Cane film series, etc.). We wanted to differentiate from Movie Tourism
(a fashion that has existed for several decades) to be more varied and not limited to tourism
(that is a part of the Dizionario del Turismo Cinematografico). In the mid-2000s, the student of video advertising
and journalistic communications at the Turin branch of the Fellini Institute Davide Lingua
(called Dave Lingua), obsessed with customary phenomena, has in mind to create a totally
new object to redevelop areas territories hit by the crisis but fun and that leads to
fashion accessible to all. This is the genesis for the creation of the
Dizionario del Turismo Cinematografico. A few years later (between 2010, the beginning
of the collaboration, and 2012) creates with this name a column (which initially deals
with Cine tourism, Cinema Museums and Costume Party with a cinematic theme) within the site
(in that period related to the homonymous paper magazine) of the Milan group Mondadori
filmtv.it which soon became the most popular of the magazine with a myriad of collaborators. In the following period the Dizionario del
Turismo Cinematografico appears as a column in various newspapers and magazines (the Netweek
group, La Voce, is mentioned in La Stampa and many other newspapers) and officially
appears as a cultural movement that gives full freedom to all to join simply using the
Dizionario del Turismo Cinematografico (respecting however the topics of interest of the movement)
coming to create totally independent sections (but always within legally registered bodies
or associations), with their own statutes and directives but with only provided that
the official founder (helped at the beginning by the first members) Davide Lingua is recognized
as Permanent Director for life (in fact director and not president because he wants to underline
the journalistic origin of the project). From its birth until today the Dizionario
del Turismo Cinematografico is a worldwide journalistic column, television broadcasting,
has sections in many associations, institutions that collaborate with municipal administrations,
has dealt with the official celebrations of film shooting anniversaries (for example Salasco
of the film Bitter Rice), appears in the credits of many films for the collaboration given,
organizes communication courses, cultural and sporting events, etc. …===Volunteer tourism===
Volunteer tourism (or voluntourism) is growing as a largely Western phenomenon, with volunteers
travelling to aid those less fortunate than themselves in order to counter global inequalities. Wearing (2001) defines volunteer tourism as
applying “to those tourists who, for various reasons, volunteer in an organised way to
undertake holidays that might involve aiding or alleviating the material poverty of some
groups in society”. VSO was founded in the UK in 1958 and the
US Peace Corps was subsequently founded in 1960. These were the first large scale voluntary
sending organisations, initially arising to modernise less economically developed countries,
which it was hoped would curb the influence of communism.This form of tourism is largely
praised for its more sustainable approach to travel, with tourists attempting to assimilate
into local cultures, and avoiding the criticisms of consumptive and exploitative mass tourism. However, increasingly voluntourism is being
criticised by scholars who suggest it may have negative effects as it begins to undermine
local labour, and force unwilling host communities to adopt Western initiatives, while host communities
without a strong heritage fail to retain volunteers who become dissatisfied with experiences and
volunteer shortages persist. Increasingly organisations such as VSO have
been concerned with community-centric volunteer programmes where power to control the future
of the community is in the hands of local people.===Pro-poor tourism===Pro-poor tourism, which seeks to help the
poorest people in developing countries, has been receiving increasing attention by those
involved in development; the issue has been addressed through small-scale projects in
local communities and through attempts by Ministries of Tourism to attract large numbers
of tourists. Research by the Overseas Development Institute
suggests that neither is the best way to encourage tourists’ money to reach the poorest as only
25% or less (far less in some cases) ever reaches the poor; successful examples of money
reaching the poor include mountain-climbing in Tanzania and cultural tourism in Luang
Prabang, Laos. There is also the possibility of pro-poor
tourism principles being adopted in centre sites of regeneration in the developed world.===Recession tourism===
Recession tourism is a travel trend which evolved by way of the world economic crisis. Recession tourism is defined by low-cost and
high-value experiences taking place of once-popular generic retreats. Various recession tourism hotspots have seen
business boom during the recession thanks to comparatively low costs of living and a
slow world job market suggesting travelers are elongating trips where their money travels
further. This concept is not widely used in tourism
research. It is related to the short-lived phenomenon
that is more widely known as staycation.===Medical tourism===When there is a significant price difference
between countries for a given medical procedure, particularly in Southeast Asia, India, Eastern
Europe, Cuba and Canada where there are different regulatory regimes, in relation to particular
medical procedures (e.g. dentistry), traveling to take advantage of the price or regulatory
differences is often referred to as “medical tourism”.===Educational tourism===
Educational tourism is developed because of the growing popularity of teaching and learning
of knowledge and the enhancing of technical competency outside of classroom environment. In educational tourism, the main focus of
the tour or leisure activity includes visiting another country to learn about the culture,
study tours, or to work and apply skills learned inside the classroom in a different environment,
such as in the International Practicum Training Program.===Event tourism===
This type of tourism is focused tourists coming into a region to either participate in an
event or to see an organized event put on by the city/region. This type of tourism can also fall under sustainable
tourism as well and companies that create a sustainable event to attend open up a chance
to not only the consumer but their workers to learn and develop from the experience. Creating a sustainable atmosphere it creates
a chance to inform and encourage sustainable practices. An example of event tourism would be the music
festival South by Southwest that is hosted in Austin, Texas annually. This is a perfect example because very year
people from all over the world flock to this one city for one week to sit in on technology
talks and see a whole city of bands perform. These people are being drawn here to experience
something that they are not able to experience in their hometown which is exactly what event
tourism is about.===Creative tourism===Creative tourism has existed as a form of
cultural tourism, since the early beginnings of tourism itself. Its European roots date back to the time of
the Grand Tour, which saw the sons of aristocratic families traveling for the purpose of mostly
interactive, educational experiences. More recently, creative tourism has been given
its own name by Crispin Raymond and Greg Richards, who as members of the Association for Tourism
and Leisure Education (ATLAS), have directed a number of projects for the European Commission,
including cultural and crafts tourism, known as sustainable tourism. They have defined “creative tourism” as tourism
related to the active participation of travellers in the culture of the host community, through
interactive workshops and informal learning experiences.Meanwhile, the concept of creative
tourism has been picked up by high-profile organizations such as UNESCO, who through
the Creative Cities Network, have endorsed creative tourism as an engaged, authentic
experience that promotes an active understanding of the specific cultural features of a place. More recently, creative tourism has gained
popularity as a form of cultural tourism, drawing on active participation by travelers
in the culture of the host communities they visit. Several countries offer examples of this type
of tourism development, including the United Kingdom, Austria, France, the Bahamas, Jamaica,
Spain, Italy, New Zealand and South Korea.The growing interest of tourists in this new way
to discover a culture regards particularly the operators and branding managers, attentive
to the possibility of attracting a quality tourism, highlighting the intangible heritage
(craft workshops, cooking classes, etc.) and optimizing the use of existing infrastructure
(for example, through the rent of halls and auditorium).===Experiential tourism===
Experiential travel (or “immersion travel”) is one of the major market trends in the modern
tourism industry. It is an approach to travelling which focuses
on experiencing a country, city or particular place by connecting to its history, people,
food and culture.The term “experiential travel” has been mentioned in publications since 1985,
but it wasn’t discovered as a meaningful market trend until much later.===Dark tourism===One emerging area of special interest has
been identified by Lennon and Foley (2000) as “dark” tourism. This type of tourism involves visits to “dark”
sites, such as battlegrounds, scenes of horrific crimes or acts of genocide, for example concentration
camps. Its origins are rooted in fairgrounds and
medieval fairs.Philip Stone argues that dark tourism is a way of imagining one’s own death
through the real death of others. Erik H Cohen introduces the term “populo sites”
to evidence the educational character of dark tourism. Populo sites transmit the story of victimized
people to visitors. Based on a study at Yad Vashem, the Shoah
(Holocaust) memorial museum in Jerusalem, a new term—in populo—is proposed to describe
dark tourism sites at a spiritual and population center of the people to whom a tragedy befell. Learning about the Shoah in Jerusalem offers
an encounter with the subject which is different from visits to sites in Europe, but equally
authentic. It is argued that a dichotomy between “authentic”
sites at the location of a tragedy and “created” sites elsewhere is insufficient. Participants’ evaluations of seminars for
European teachers at Yad Vashem indicate that the location is an important aspect of a meaningful
encounter with the subject. Implications for other cases of dark tourism
at in populo locations are discussed. In this vein, Peter Tarlow defines dark tourism
as the tendency to visit the scenes of tragedies or historically noteworthy deaths, which continue
to impact our lives. This issue cannot be understood without the
figure of trauma.===Social tourism===
Social tourism is making tourism available to poor people who otherwise could not afford
to travel for their education or recreation. It includes youth hostels and low-priced holiday
accommodation run by church and voluntary organisations, trade unions, or in Communist
times publicly owned enterprises. In May 1959, at the second Congress of Social
Tourism in Austria, Walter Hunziker proposed the following definition: “Social tourism
is a type of tourism practiced by low income groups, and which is rendered possible and
facilitated by entirely separate and therefore easily recognizable services”.===Doom tourism===Also known as “Tourism of Doom,” or “Last
Chance Tourism” this emerging trend involves traveling to places that are environmentally
or otherwise threatened (such as the ice caps of Mount Kilimanjaro, the melting glaciers
of Patagonia, or the coral of the Great Barrier Reef) before it is too late. Identified by travel trade magazine Travel
Age West editor-in-chief Kenneth Shapiro in 2007 and later explored in The New York Times,
this type of tourism is believed to be on the rise. Some see the trend as related to sustainable
tourism or ecotourism due to the fact that a number of these tourist destinations are
considered threatened by environmental factors such as global warming, overpopulation or
climate change. Others worry that travel to many of these
threatened locations increases an individual’s carbon footprint and only hastens problems
threatened locations are already facing.===Religious tourism===Religious tourism, in particular pilgrimage,
can serve to strengthen faith and to demonstrate devotion – both of which are central tenets
of many major religions. Religious tourists may seek destinations whose
image encourages them to believe that they can strengthen the religious elements of their
self-identity in a positive manner. Given this, the perceived image of a destination
may be positively influenced by whether it conforms to the requirements of their religious
self-identity or not.===Tourism fatigue===
Excessive hordes of visitors – or of the wrong sort of visitors – can provoke backlashes
from otherwise friendly hosts in popular destinations.==Growth==
The World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) forecasts that international tourism will continue growing
at the average annual rate of 4%. With the advent of e-commerce, tourism products
have become one of the most traded items on the internet. Tourism products and services have been made
available through intermediaries, although tourism providers (hotels, airlines, etc.),
including small-scale operators, can sell their services directly. This has put pressure on intermediaries from
both on-line and traditional shops. It has been suggested there is a strong correlation
between tourism expenditure per capita and the degree to which countries play in the
global context. Not only as a result of the important economic
contribution of the tourism industry, but also as an indicator of the degree of confidence
with which global citizens leverage the resources of the globe for the benefit of their local
economies. This is why any projections of growth in tourism
may serve as an indication of the relative influence that each country will exercise
in the future.===Space tourism===There has been a limited amount of orbital
space tourism, with only the Russian Space Agency providing transport to date. A 2010 report into space tourism anticipated
that it could become a billion-dollar market by 2030.===Sports tourism===Since the late 1980s, sports tourism has become
increasingly popular. Events such as rugby, Olympics, Commonwealth
Games, and FIFA World Cups have enabled specialist travel companies to gain official ticket allocation
and then sell them in packages that include flights, hotels and excursions.===Latest trends===As a result of the late-2000s recession, international
arrivals suffered a strong slowdown beginning in June 2008. Growth from 2007 to 2008 was only 3.7% during
the first eight months of 2008. This slowdown on international tourism demand
was also reflected in the air transport industry, with a negative growth in September 2008 and
a 3.3% growth in passenger traffic through September. The hotel industry also reported a slowdown,
with room occupancy declining. In 2009 worldwide tourism arrivals decreased
by 3.8%. By the first quarter of 2009, real travel
demand in the United States had fallen 6% over six quarters. While this is considerably milder than what
occurred after the 9/11 attacks, the decline was at twice the rate as real GDP has fallen.However,
evidence suggests that tourism as a global phenomenon shows no signs of substantially
abating in the long term. It has been suggested that travel is necessary
in order to maintain relationships, as social life is increasingly networked and conducted
at a distance. For many people vacations and travel are increasingly
being viewed as a necessity rather than a luxury, and this is reflected in tourist numbers
recovering some 6.6% globally over 2009, with growth up to 8% in emerging economies.==See also

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